Twenty three hundred years ago, there was a learned Acharya (Scholar) named Chanak in the Kingdom of Magadha of the ancient India, formerly called BHARAT which aboded as a cultural heritage and a rich nation. Bharat was divided into kingdoms like Gandhar, Kashi, Avanti, Assaka, Kalinga, Magadha, Kuru, Mallayrajya and so on.
There was King named Dhanananda who was ruling Magadha, who was adamant, wine-loathed and women laden man. He had a cabinet of ministers, which was headed by a wise prime minister named Shaktar. He was the King’s advisor and a learned man. One day in the assembly, he announced to the king, that women in their kingdom are raped and murdered, and no one seem to care about it. The king got furious, by Shaktar’s comment and sent him to Nanda’s hell, which was a torture cell in the underground reigns of the kingdom. Acharya Chanak, was Shaktar’s close friend, was found propagating to the people of Magadha about the king’s misconducts and deeds. Soon as King Dhanananda got acquainted of it, he ordered his soldiers to cut of the Acharya’s head, which eventually happened. Vishnugupta, was the son of Acharya Chanak, which later known to become Chanakya was helped by one of the ministers in the King’s cabinet named Katyayan, cremated his father’s dead body and was sent to Takshila University (which is the oldest university in the world) with a letter to the dean.
The University comprised of with princes and children of the kings and governors in the world. Young Chanakya, being interviewed by the admissions head of the university, was being probed and asked ” What are the possible means by which a king can settle political disputes?”, the witty and knowledgeable Chanakya replied ” There are four possible methods. Sama- Gentle persuasion and praise; Daama- Monetary incentives; Danda- Punishment or War and Bheda-Intelligence, Propaganda and Disinformation. Amazed by his knowledge and wit, the dean let Chanakya to study in the university and later on he went on to become a professor in Political Science at the university. He, then became the Guru of Chandragupta Maurya, who invaded Magadha and set the kingdom out from the ruins of King Dhanananda, later found the Mauryan Empire.
Chanakya or Kautilya, is known for his undisputed works such as Arthashastra and Neetishastra, which discussed monetary and fiscal policies, international relations and war strategies. The remains of the manuscript was lost near the end of Gupta Dynasty in 5 BC, and which was not rediscovered until 1915. Today, these works are recognized by nations and being implemented as wise thoughts in dealings with economics and international relations. His works are identified as the precursor to Classical economics.
The Modern classical economics developers include Adam Smith, David Ricardo, Thomas Malthus, John Stuart Mill etc, did not get the privilege to go through the works of Chanakya. Adam Smith’s The Wealth of Nations in 1776 is usually considered to mark the beginning of classical economics, but instead Chanakya’s Arthashastra was the true beginning of classical economics.
More on the views of Chanakya’s works and Arthashastra has been researched and being identified as the birth mark of Classical Economics: ArthaShastra Research Report.
As soon as the fear approaches near, attack and destroy it. – Chanakya.